After the destruction of the Judahite city by the Babylonians in the late 6th century,  whatever was rebuilt in the Persian period as part of the Restoration after the Babylonian captivity , left only very few remains. After the abandonment of the Tell es-Sultan location, the new Jericho of the Late Hellenistic or Hasmonean and Early Roman or Herodian periods, was established as a garden city in the vicinity of the royal estate at Tulul Abu el-'Alayiq and expanded greatly thanks to the intensive exploitation of the springs of the area.
Herod had to lease back the royal estate at Jericho from Cleopatra , after Mark Antony had given it to her as a gift. Herod's rule oversaw the construction of a hippodrome -theatre Tell es-Samrat to entertain his guests and new aqueducts to irrigate the area below the cliffs and reach his winter palaces built at the site of Tulul Abu el-Alaiq also written ' Alayiq.
The dramatic murder of Aristobulus III in a swimming pool at the winter palaces near Jericho, as described by the Roman Jewish historian Josephus , took place during a banquet organized by Herod's Hasmonean mother-in-law. After the construction of the palaces, the city had functioned not only as an agricultural center and as a crossroad, but also as a winter resort for Jerusalem 's aristocracy.
First-century Jericho is described in Strabo 's Geography as follows:. Jericho is a plain surrounded by a kind of mountainous country, which in a way, slopes toward it like a theatre. Here is the Phoenicon , which is mixed also with all kinds of cultivated and fruitful trees, though it consists mostly of palm trees. It is stadia in length and is everywhere watered with streams.
Here also are the Palace and the Balsam Park. The Christian Gospels state that Jesus of Nazareth passed through Jericho where he healed blind beggars Matthew , and inspired a local chief tax-collector named Zacchaeus to repent of his dishonest practices Luke — John Wesley , in his New Testament Notes on this section of Luke's Gospel , claimed that "about twelve thousand priests and Levites dwelt there, who all attended the service of the temple".
Smith 's Bible Names Dictionary suggests that on the arrival of Jesus and his entourage, "Jericho was once more 'a city of palms' when our Lord visited it. Here he restored sight to the blind Matthew ; Mark ; Luke Here the descendant of Rahab did not disdain the hospitality of Zaccaeus the publican. Finally, between Jerusalem and Jericho was laid the scene of his story of the good Samaritan. Accounts of Jericho by a Christian pilgrim are given in A synagogue dating to the late 6th or early 7th century CE was discovered in Jericho in , and was named Shalom Al Yisrael Synagogue, or "peace unto Israel", after the central Hebrew motto in its mosaic floor.
It was controlled by Israel after the Six Day War, but after the handover to Palestinian Authority control per the Oslo Accords , it has been a source of conflict. On the night of 12 October , the synagogue was vandalized by Palestinians who burned holy books and relics and damaged the mosaic. The Na'aran synagogue, another Byzantine era construction, was discovered on the northern outskirts of Jericho in While less is known of it than Shalom Al Yisrael, it has a larger mosaic and is in similar condition.
The Arab Muslim historian Musa b. By , that district had come under the control of Mu'awiya , founder of the Umayyad dynasty. That year, an earthquake destroyed Jericho. A palatial complex long attributed to the tenth Umayyad caliph, Hisham ibn Abd al-Malik r. This "desert castle" or qasr was more likely built by Caliph Walid ibn Yazid r. The unfinished structure was largely destroyed in an earthquake in Umayyad rule ended in and was followed by the Arab caliphates of the Abbasid and Fatimid dynasties.
Irrigated agriculture was developed under Islamic rule, reaffirming Jericho's reputation as a fertile "City of the Palms". Bananas are plentiful, also dates and flowers of fragrant odor". The city flourished until with the invasion of the Seljuk Turks , followed by the upheavals of the Crusades.
In , the Crusaders rebuilt the Monastery of St. They also built another two churches and a monastery dedicated to John the Baptist , and are credited with introducing sugarcane production to the city. In , the Crusaders were evicted by the Ayyubid forces of Saladin after their victory in the Battle of Hattin , and the town slowly went into decline. In , Arab geographer Yaqut al-Hamawi said of Jericho, "it has many palm trees, also sugarcane in quantities, and bananas.
The best of all the sugar in the Ghaur land is made here. In Jericho appeared in the tax registers under the name of Riha , being in the nahiya of Al-Quds in the liwa of Al-Quds. It had a population of 51 household, all Muslims. All of the revenue still went to a Waqf. The French traveller Laurent d'Arvieux described the city in as "now desolate, and consists only of about fifty poor houses, in bad condition The plain around is extremely fertile; the soil is middling fat; but it is watered by several rivulets, which flow into the Jordan.
Notwithstanding these advantages only the gardens adjacent to the town are cultivated. In the 19th century, European scholars, archaeologists and missionaries visited often. The main water sources for the village were a spring called Ein al-Sultan , lit. Buckingham — describes in his book how the male villagers of er-Riha, although nominally sedentary, engaged in Bedouin -style raiding, or ghazzu : the little land cultivation he observed was done by women and children, while men spent most of their time riding through the plains and engaging in "robbery and plunder", their main and most profitable activity.
An Ottoman village list from around showed that Riha , Jericho, had 36 houses and a population of , though the population count included men, only. The first excavation at Tell es-Sultan was carried out in The Greek Orthodox monasteries of Monastery of St.
George of Choziba and John the Baptist were refounded and completed in and , respectively. During World War II The British built fortresses in Jericho with the help of the Jewish company Solel Boneh , and bridges were rigged with explosives in preparation for a possible invasion by German allied forces. In , an earthquake struck and affected Jericho and other cities. Around people died,  but by the census the population had increased to 1, inhabitants, in houses.
In the statistics , the Jericho's population was 3,; 2, Muslims, Jews, Christians and 10 classified as "other",  and it had jurisdiction over 37, dunams of land. Jericho came under Jordanian control after the Arab—Israeli War.
The Jericho Conference , organized by King Abdullah and attended by over 2, Palestinian delegates in proclaimed "His Majesty Abdullah as King of all Palestine" and called for "the unification of Palestine and Transjordan as a step toward full Arab unity".
In mid, Jordan formally annexed the West Bank and Jericho residents, like other residents of West Bank localities became Jordanian citizens. In , the population of Jericho was 10,,  of whom were Christian, the rest Muslim. It was the first city handed over to Palestinian Authority control in accordance with the Oslo Accords. Part of the agreement was a "Protocol on Economic Relations", signed on 29 April Four roadblocks encircle the enclave, restricting Jericho's Palestinian population's movement through the West Bank.
In response to the Second Intifada and suicide bombings , Jericho was re-occupied by Israeli troops. After Hamas assaulted a neighborhood in Gaza mostly populated by the Fatah-aligned Hilles clan , in response to their attack that killed six Hamas members, the Hilles clan was relocated to Jericho on 4 August Rich alluvial soil and abundant spring water have made Jericho an attractive place for settlement.
Palestinian refugees constituted a significant Jericho has a young population, with nearly half People between the ages of 20 and 44 made up Demographics have varied widely depending on the dominant ethnic group and rule in the region over the past three thousand years. In , Israel and the Palestinians signed an economic accord that enabled Palestinians in Jericho to open banks, collect taxes and engage in export and import in preparation for self-rule.
In , Jericho, with its proximity to the Dead Sea, was declared the most popular destination among Palestinian tourists. Christian tourism is one of Jericho's primary sources of income. There are several major Christian pilgrimage sites in and around Jericho. The archaeological sites in and near Jericho have a high potential for attracting tourists.
These are dealt with in detail in the History and archaeology paragraph:. Agriculture is another source of income, with banana groves ringing the city. Agricultural processing companies are being offered financial concessions to lease plots of land in the park in a bid to boost Jericho's economy. In , Christian friars opened a school for pupils that became the Terra Santa School. The city has 22 state schools and a number of private schools. They play home games in the 15, spectator Jericho International Stadium.
Jericho is twinned with: . From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Palestinian city in the West Bank. This article is about the city in Palestine. For the city in Syria , see Ariha. For other uses, see Jericho disambiguation. Municipality type A in State of Palestine. Municipality type A City. Municipal Seal of Jericho. Location of Jericho within Palestine. Part of a series on the. Rashidun Jund Filastin , Jund al-Urdunn. See also: Levantine archaeology.
See also: Tell es-Sultan. Further information: Wall of Jericho neolithic and Tower of Jericho. For the Biblical battle, see Battle of Jericho. Further information: Jericho royal winter palaces. Further information: Hisham's Palace. See also: List of twin towns and sister cities in the State of Palestine. Asia portal. Retrieved 8 March The New York Times. United Atates. Retrieved 16 November Science in Poland service, Polish Press Agency. Archived from the original on 1 October Retrieved 23 February Mazurowski Newsletter The diplomat.
Retrieved 18 April Bibliotheca Sacra : — Retrieved 6 November Cambridge, Massachusetts: Harvard University Press. Museum of Ancient and Modern Art. Retrieved 5 September M; Schwartz, Glenn M. Cambridge University Press. The Jerusalem Post. Kenyon; Thomas A. Holland Excavations at Jericho: The architecture and stratigraphy of the Tell: plates, p. British School of Archaeology. Archived from the original on 20 February Retrieved 31 March Digging Up Jericho.
London, England : Ernest Benn Limited. Retrieved 26 February Hubbard, Jr. The current scholarly consensus follows the conclusion of Kenyon: Except for a small, short-lived settlement ca. The Israelite Settlement in Canaan. New Archeological Models". Recent Archeological Discoveries and Biblical Research.
US: University of Washington Press. Retrieved 7 January Of course, for some, that only made the Biblical story more miraculous than ever—Joshua destroyed a city that wasn't even there! Archaeological Encyclopedia of the Holy Land. New York and London: Continuum. Archaeology of the Bible. New York: Simon and Schuster. Hasmonean and Herodian palaces at Jericho: final reports of the — excavations.
Retrieved 6 February Retrieved 21 February Retrieved 5 May James Rose MacPherson W. London: BD. In Cathedra , Jerusalem: Yad Yitzhak Ben Zvi. Encyclopaedia Judaica. The manager proclaimed that they wished to create an "atmosphere" that "will allow our customers to forget the political tensions outside. Arafat's council had decreed that Palestinians could work at the casino but they could not gamble.
Nonetheless, many seemed to get in using passports from other countries. Three thousand visitors came across the line of demarkation to the casino every day for two years. A survey by the Israel Information and Investigation Service found that 97 percent of the gamblers were Israeli citizens while 3 percent were tourists who were visiting Israel.
Fewer were Arabs with foreign passports. One third of the visitors came from the larger cities Tel Aviv, Jerusalem, and Haifa on tour buses. A transportation contractor ran 19 buses and 9 minibuses. The average player was middle-class and middle-aged. Each spent e. The food while not in all cases Kosher was consistent with general religious standards for the most part.
The gamblers preferred table games, and these outnumbered the slot machines. The casino was very profitable and represented a major and noticeable outflow of money from the Jewish sectors of Israel to the Palestine Authority populations. The New York Times reported that the casino "represented the largest and most lucrative investment of the Palestinian Investment Fund. In two years the casino took the equivalent of one-half billion U.
In contrast to Las Vegas, there were few "highrollers," although a special VIP room remained open until 2 p. This money helped finance many Palestine Authority activities as it was their leading source of revenue. The situation seemed to please everyone, the players and their hosts--both the Austrians and the Palestinians--for two years.
But almost like Las Vegas where "two years" makes a casino old and brings thoughts of implosions to the minds of developers, two years brought explosions to the Casino Oasis as well. In the fall of the second Intifada began as Palestinians initiated a series of terror attacks against Israelis.
The Israeli military responded. The casino building was in the direct line of fire between the combatants, yet the Israeli military at first telegraphed the notion that the building would not be a target. In response to a false sense of safety, some Palestine partisans saw an advantage and they permitted snipers to shelter themselves on the roof of the building.
The snipers fired upon nearby Israeli settlements not in the "West Bank" area. After repeated warnings did not stop this activity, one Israeli tank simply moved into position and commenced fire a shell into the casino building essentially ruining the structure. The casino had already been closed down, and no lives were lost in the shelling. This military action was not desired by anyone as the facility had served a very real "need to gamble" felt by many citizens of Israel. Israelis would welcome the reopening of the casino.
Indeed, in the interim period of the close-down two Israeli businessmen traded their interest in a Greek casino to Casinos Austria and they have acquired an option to purchase a one-third business interest in the property. In the interim years Milton Schlaff was not exactly idle regarding his "Holy land" interests.
He purchased a large ship and used it as a casino training facility for dealers. He also wished to anchor the ship at Eilat and win permission to operate his casino just off the shore of that tourist resort city at the southmost point of Israel on the Red Sea. While the Mayor of Eilat was very much in favor of the idea, the Israeli Attorney General vetoed the project. The demands for gambling in Israel have also been made evident by a proposal to have a casino on an airplane.
In May the Maariv daily newspaper in Israel indicated that the transport ministry had authorized a Boeing to be operated by Icelandic airlines with a casino aboard. Even though it received approval of the transport ministry, the plan was rejected due to strong objections of the government's legal advisor and the Israeli Supreme Court. In a rather bizarre example of the proclivity of Israelis to gamble, the police initiated investigations of an illegal betting ring which conducted active wagering on specific sites that would be the locations of the next terrorist attacks from Palestinian bombers.
There are modern day reasons why sovereign pockets are given privileges to run casinos while their neighbors cannot do so. Most often the "host" or dominant neighbors approve often in silence the existence of the casino. Such is the case with Israel and the Oasis Casino of Jericho.
First, Israeli officials realize that there was and is a demand for gambling among Israelis and the casino helps to meet that demand. The casino can draw players away from many illegal casinos and also away from casinos in other jurisdiction. There is a casino in Taba, Egypt, just across the border from Eilat, and it caters almost exclusively to Israeli players. There are also quasi-legal boats that operate out of Eilat and offer casino gambling after they cruise out beyond the national waters.
Second, the creation of the Palestine casino lessened pressures to establish casinos in Israel, pressures that involve confrontation with strong moral interests, especially religious parties and members of the Labor Party. These interests may have recognized Israeli complicity in the decision to open the Jericho casino, but the fact that the casino was under Palestine Authority jurisdiction muted their opposition. Better the sin of gambling be on someone else's land.
Third, the existence of the casino allowed Israeli money to move to Palestinians without direct appropriations. These investments helped to lessen hostility of Palestinians toward Israelis, and in turn Israeli hostility toward Palestinians. The many jobs the casino gave to Jericho residents allowed them to start to build careers that could lead to a more vibrant local community. Strong healthy Palestine communities would be more likely to wish peaceful relations with Israel, as they would have a lot to lose in an atmosphere of hostility--which has turned out to be the case.
The closure of the Jericho Casino in siphoned away most of the commercial activity of the community of Jericho. The casino had invigorated a local economy, but the closure cost jobs. The closure also affected the revenues of Casinos Austria, a company with interests in approximately casinos worldwide.
The United States is perhaps a willing partner in the efforts to reopen the casino. Aid to the residents of Palestine lands exceeds the aid the United States gives to any other country. The suggestion is that there are perhaps better ways for Palestine to get aid, and the casino could be one of them. On the other hand, the two year existence of the Jericho casino did present some downsides for Israel. First, there were questions about where some of the casino profits went. Certainly many of the dollars went to Yasser Arafat of the Palestine Authority--a major owner of the casino.
Much money which was intended for the community of Jericho and the Palestinians purportedly went to Arafat instead, and he may have used the money to plan terrorist attacks on Israel, and also to add to his personal bank accounts. Second, while the casino drew hundreds of thousands of dollars each a day from Israeli players, many Israelis continued to gamble at illegal casinos. They also participated in quasi-illegal and questionable casino activity--on the Internet, and on boat cruises to nowhere, out of the southern port of Eilat.
The hope of the "host" country is, of course, that new leadership--in the person of Prime Minister Mahmoud Abbas--within the Palestine Authority will direct the Authority's share of casino revenues toward the public interest causes that can best help the people of Palestine. Another downside--depending on one's perspective--of the revitalized Oasis Casino will be political pressure for casinos within Israel proper.
At the present time no major religious party has a strong voice within the Sharon ruling coalition. The religious parties have only 21 votes in the member Knesset. Already Mifal Hapais, the national lottery organization, has put forth its plan for as many as five new casinos to be run under their control. Former prime minister and current Minister of Finance, Benjamin Netanyahu, has proposed a plan for private casinos. He has close contacts with notable casino interests in the United States.
Today a reversal of fortunes in many state governments--specifically the two biggest ones, California and New York--have found state leaders doing an almost degree turnabout regarding their willingness to endorse and support casino gambling on Native American lands. Now that their treasury cupboards are bare, they seem quite willing to go to tribes hat in hand and seek mutually beneficial in a money sense gambling opportunities, whereas they had vehemently opposed tribal games when state finances were in good shape.
So too, Israel looks at casino gambling on its borders with the Palestine Authority not in terms of morality or abstract principles, but rather in terms of mutual advantage.
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The Oasis Casino Hotel opened in to much fanfare and amid expectations of attracting Israeli and other foreign gambling money to infuse into the Palestinian economy, but closed just two years later as a wave of Palestinian terrorism endangered the premises and drove away tourists.
Its operators still insist it will reopen as soon as political and security conditions permit, but in the intervening twenty years the Jericho site has languished. Palestinian National Authority law permits only holders of foreign passports to patronize the casino, leaving high-ranking officials who wish to gamble no choice but to do so with Palestinian lives, using the latter as sacrificial victims to various money-making schemes, anti-Israel propaganda drives, and political maneuvering.
The Oasis began its operations three years after the Oslo Accords took effect and brought millions of dollars into Palestinian Authority coffers. However, terrorists operating from the grounds of the facility attracting IDF fire that caused damage, and the perils inherent in setting foot in Palestinian-controlled territory — Jericho is entirely under Palestinian Authority jurisdiction — during the Second Intifada forced the enterprise to close its doors until circumstances shift.
That shift has yet to occur. Good to know. City landmarks Nearby. Kenya National Archives. Mombasa Road. African Heritage House. Junction of Moi Avenue. August 7th Memorial Park. Golf Course. Moi Avenue. Off Moi Avenue. Getting around. Ben Gurion TLV Stayed there? What is the closest airport? The property is located miles from Ben Gurion airport. How far is the city center from the property? The city center is located miles away. How much does it cost to stay here?
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This insulated and particular edifice was built in Jericho in as a casino. It represents the first largest private investment in the Palestinian territories, as well as the first major cross-border development project, involving Israel, the Palestinian Authority and Jordan. In the midst of a complex geopolitical situation, it was meant to be a fertile spot for investment and gaming all the while instrument for facilitating communication and peace processes before being infested with corruption and conflicts.
It closed its doors in shortly after beginning of the second Intifada. Casino entrance sealed up. Back to the checkpoint of the entrance of the city. Soldiers in watchtowers. Soldiers walking around. A flag. The movie combines documentary and archive video material with animation work and simulated environments that are related under a multilayered narrative spine.
The mayor, Abdel Karim Sidder, is hedging his bets. Daniel Bahr discounts religious resistance. The Palestinians will get income from taxes, wages and the tourist spill-over into the city. About 70 per cent of the Palestinians working on the site come from the dusty, sprawling Aqabal Jabr refugee camp across the main road.
The Austrians expect to employ another Palestinians in the casino and in the hotel, which is due to open next summer. Some of the dealers will be British, others Palestinians trained on site. Jericho is a very religious town. It just doesn't show it. I don't think people will stand for the casino. What will the mosque do to stop it?
We'll urge people not to work at the casino. We won't use force. Others stayed because they needed the work but gave false names. From the start, Mr Arafat's government has banned Palestinians from the gaming tables. So the promoters of the casino are targeting Israelis, Gulf Arabs and sun-seeking Europeans.
Jericho is half an hour by car from Jerusalem, an hour and a half from Tel-Aviv, and five minutes from the Allenby Bridge which links the West Bank to Jordan. The site is ringed by a high, spiky steel fence for maximum protection. Video circuits are being installed. Visitors will be frisked, their passports vetted.
The developers are relying on Palestinian self-interest and the combined vigilance of Israeli and Palestinian security services to keep the place safe from Hamas suicide bombers.